Research Database

This tool allows education practitioners and researchers to quickly access quantitative research on tutoring program effectiveness. These 150+ research studies were selected due to their rigorous research designs which align with What Works Clearinghouse and Every Student Succeeds Act standards for moderate and strong evidence of intervention efficacy. Many studies were originally identified by their inclusion in recent meta-analyses (Baye et al., 2018; Neitzel et al., 2021; Nichow et al., 2020). Research may be sorted by grade level, subject, and tutor type in order to explore the evidence base for particular program designs. This database does not include qualitative research on best practices for tutoring implementation, for which we recommend exploring our District Playbook and Toolkit for Tutoring Programs.

If you have additional research studies (quantitative or qualitative) that you would like to share, please fill out this form or send an email to

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Evaluation Report. (2019). Nunes, T., Malmberg, L., Evans, D., Sanders-Ellis, D., Baker, S., Barros, R., Bryant, P., & Evangelou, M.. London: Education Endowment Foundation

Testing the efficacy of a kindergarten mathematics intervention by small group size. (2017). Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Kosty, D., Kurtz Nelson, E., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., & Turtura, J. . AERA Open, 3(2), 2332858417706899.

Testing the efficacy of a tier 2 mathematics intervention: A conceptual replication study. (2016). Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Kosty, D. B., Kurtz-Nelson, E., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., & Baker, S. K.. Exceptional Children, 83(1), 92–110.

Examining the efficacy of a tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. (2016). Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., & Strand Cary, M. . Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(2), 152–165.

Impact Evaluation of the Minnesota Reading Corps K-3 Program. (2014). Markovitz, C. E., Hernandez, M. W., Hedberg, E. C., & Silberglitt, B.. Corporation for National and Community Service.

Live webcam coaching to help early elementary classroom teachers provide effective literacy instruction for struggling readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention. (2013). Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Hedrick, A., Ginsberg, M., & Amendum, S.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1175–1187.

Replicating the impact of a supplemental beginning reading intervention: The role of instructional context. (2013). Coyne, M. D., Literacytle, M., Rawlinson, D., Simmons, D., Kwok, O., Kim, M., Simmons, L., Hagan-Burke, S., & Civetelli, C.. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6(1), 1–23.

Efficacy of the Leveled Literacyeracy Intervention System for K–2 urban students: An empirical evaluation of LLI in Denver Public Schools. (2013). Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Ross, C. L., Lee, C. C., Sutton Flynt, E., Franceschini, L. A., & Zoblotsky, T. A.. Memphis, TN: Center for Research in Educational Policy..

The Effect of the Experience Corps® Program on Student Reading Outcomes. (2012). Lee, Y. S., Morrow-Howell, N., Jonson-Reid, M., & McCrary, S.. Education and Urban Society, 44(1), 97–118.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. (2011). Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C.. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 107–131.

Effects of supplemental reading interventions in authentic contexts: A comparison of kindergarteners’ response . (2011). Simmons, D. C., Coyne, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., Kwok, O.-M., Simmons, L., Johnson, C., Zou, Y., Taylor, A. B., Mcalenney, A. L., Ruby, M., & Crevecoeur, Y. C.. Exceptional Children, 77(2), 207–228.

Responsiveness of students with language difficulties to early intervention in reading. (2010). O'Connor, R. E., Bocian, K., Beebe-Frankenberger, M., & Linklater, D. L.. The Journal of Special Education.

Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of fountas & pinnell’s leveled literacy intervention system . (2010). Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Flynt, E. S., Ross, C. L., Franceschini, L., Zoblotsky, T., Huang, Y., & Gallagher, B.. Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP).

Short-term impact of experience Corps® participation on children and schools: Results from a pilot randomized trial. (2004). Rebok, G. W., Carlson, M. C., Glass, T. A., McGill, S., Hill, J., Wasik, B. A., Ialongo, N., Frick, K. D., Fried, L. P., & Rasmussen, M. D.. Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 81(1), 79–93.